Mahonia aquifolium (Berberidaceae), Oregon-grape is an evergreen Shrub growing to 1.5 m. This species' leaves are leathery they are long 10-12 cm, with elongated spiky jagged shape in the periphery. If the winter is very dry and chilly, the leaves change color in red and brown, they may even fall out. Thanks to its strong roots and shoots, many spring bush appears undamaged and put back in their shiny green attire. It is in flower from Jan to May, and the seeds ripen from Aug to September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects. The plant is self-fertile. The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in heavy clay soil.The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils..It can grow in full shade (deep woodland) semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade.It requires dry or moist soil.